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Bioassessment Literature

The following list of publications address topics relevant to either ecological assessments as a whole or predictive modeling approaches to ecological assessment. This literature is divided into following sub-categories:

Barbour, M. T., S. B. Norton, H. R. Preston, and K. W. Thornton (editors). 2004. Ecological Assessment of Aquatic Resources: Linking Science to Decision-Making. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Fl.

Bonada, N., N. Prat, V.H. Resh, and B. Statzner. 2006. Developments in aquatic insect biomonitoring: a comparative analysis of recent approaches. Annual Review of Entomology 51:495-523.

Cairns, J. Jr., and J.R. Pratt. 1993. A history of biological monitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Pages 10-27 in D.M. Rosenberg and V.H. Resh, editors. Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates, Chapman and Hall, New York.

Cao, Y., W.P. Williams, and A.W. Bark. 1997. The change of macroinvertebrate communities along a pollution gradient: a framework for developing biotic indices. Water research 31:805-813.

Cao, Y., and C.P. Hawkins. 2005. Simulating biological impairment to evaluate the accuracy of ecological indicators. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:954-965.

Cao, Y., D.P. Larsen, and R. St-J. Thorne. 2001. Rare species in multivariate analysis for bioassessment: some considerations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20:144-153.

Clements, W.H., and M. C. Newman. 2002. Community Ecotoxicology. John Willey and Sons, Ltd., San Francisco, USA.

Davies, S.P. and S.K. Jackson. 2006. The biological condition gradient: a descriptive model for interpreting change in aquatic ecosystems. Ecological Applications 16:1251-1266.

Davies, W.S., and T.P. Simon. 1995. Biological Assessment and Criteria. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Downes, B.J., L. A. Barmuta, P.G. Fairweather, D.P. Faith, M. J. Keough, P.S. Lake, B.D. Mapstone, and G.P. Quinn. 2002. Monitoring ecological impacts: concepts and practice in flowing waters. Cambridge University Press.

European Commission. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC, Establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. European Commission PE-CONS 3639/1/100 Rev 1, Luxembourg.

GAO. 2002. Water quality: inconsistent state approaches complicate nation’s efforts to identify its most polluted waters. GAO-02-186. United State General Accounting Office, 441 G. Street NW, Washington, DC 20548.

Gerritsen, J. 1995. Additive biological indices for resource management. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 14: 451-457.

Hawkins, C. P. 2006. Quantifying biological integrity by taxonomic completeness: evaluation of a potential indicator for use in regional- and global-scale assessments. Ecological Applications 16:1251-1266.

Hawkins, C. P., J. R. Olson, and R. A. Hill. 2010. The reference condition: predicting baselines for ecological and water-quality assessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29:312-358.

Hawkins, C.P., R.H. Norris, J. Gerritsen, R.M. Hughes, S.K. Jackson, R.K. Johnson, R.J. Stevenson. 2000. Evaluation of the use of landscape classifications for the prediction of freshwater biota: synthesis and recommendations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:541-556.

Heinz Center 2002. The State of the nation's Ecosystems: measuring the lands, waters, and living Resources of the United States. The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, 1001 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Suite 735 South, Washington, DC 20004.

Hellawell, J.M. 1986. Biological indicators of freshwater pollution and environmental management. Applied Science Publishers, London.

Hering, D., A. Buffagni, O. Moog, L. Sandin, M. Sommerhäuser, I. Stubauer, C. Feld, R.K. Johnson, P. Pinto, N. Skoulikidis, P. Verdonschot, and S. Zahrádková. 2003. The development of a system to assess the ecological quality of streams based on macroinvertebrates: design of the sampling programme within the AQEM project. International Review of Hydrobiology 88:345-361.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1987. An improved biotic index of organic stream pollution. The Great Lakes Entomologist 20:31-39.

Herlihy, A. T., S. Paulsen, J. Van Sickle, J. Stoddard, C. P. Hawkins, and L. L. Yuan. 2008. Striving for consistency in a national assessment: the challenges of applying a reference condition approach at a continental scale. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:860-877.

Hughes, R.M., D.P. Larsen, and J.M. Omernik. 1986. Regional reference sites: A method for assessing stream potentials. Environmental Management 10:629-635.

Kolkwitz, R., and M. Marsson. 1908. Okologie der pflanzlichen saprobien. Berichte der Deutschen botanischen Gesellschaft 26a: 505-519. (Translated 1967. Ecology of plant saprobia, pp. 47-52 in L.E. Kemp, W.M. Ingram, and K.M. Mackenthum, editors. Biology of water pollution, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Washington, DC.

Johnson, R.K, T. Wiederholm, and D.M. Rosenberg. 1993. Freshwater biomonitoring using individual organisms, populations, and species assemblages of benthic macroinvertebrates. Page 40-158 in D.M. Rosenberg and V.H. Resh, editors. Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, London.

Lenat, D.R. 1993. A biotic index for the southeastern United States: derivation and list of tolerance values, with criteria for assigning water-quality rating. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12:279-290.

Loeb, S.L., and A. Spacie. 1994. Biological monitoring of aquatic systems. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Logan, P., and M.T. Furse. 2002. Preparing for the European Water Framework Directive – making the links between habitat and aquatic biota. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12:425-437.

Metcalfe, J.L. 1989. Biological water quality assessment of running water based on macroinvertebrate communities: history and present status in Europe. Environmental Pollution 69:101-139.

Naiman, R.J., and R.E. Bilby. 2001. River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific Coastal ecoregion. Springer-Verlag. New York.

Norris, R.H., and C.P. Hawkins. 2000. Monitoring river health. Hydrobiologia 435:5-17.

NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Omernik, J.M. 1987. Ecoregions of the Conterminous United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77:118-125.

Pan, Y., R.J. Stevenson, B.H. Hill, A.T. Herlihy, G.B. Collins. 1996. Using diatoms as indicators of ecological conditions in lotic systems: A regional assessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:481-495.

Rader, R.B., D. P. Batzer, and S.A. Wissinger.2001. Bioassessment and management of North American freshwater wetlands. John Willey and Sons, New York.

Rapport, D.J., H.A. Regier, and T.C. Hutchinson. 1985. Ecosystem behavior under stress. American Naturalist 125:617-640.

Resh, V.H., R.H. Norris, and M.T. Barbour. 1995. Design and implementation of rapid assessment approaches for water resource monitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Australian Journal of Ecology 20:108-121.

Reynoldson, T.B., and J.F. Wright. 2000. The reference conditions: problems and solutions. Page 293-303 in J.F. Wright, D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse, editors. Assessing he biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. FBA, The Ferry House, Far Sawrey, Cumbria, England.

Rosenberg, D.M., and V.H. Resh. 1993. Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Schindler, D. W. 1987. Detecting ecosystem responses to anthropogenic stress. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 44 (suppl. 1):6-25.

Schindler, D.W. 1990. Experimental perturbations of whole lakes as tests of hypotheses concerning ecosystem structure and function. Oikos 57:25-41.

Stevenson, R. J., R. C. Bailey, M. C. Harrass, C. P. Hawkins, J. Alba-Tercedor, C. Couch, S. Dyer, F. A. Fulk, J. M. Harrington, C. T. Hunsaker, R. K. Johnson. 2004. Designing data collection for ecological assessments. Pages 55-84 in M. T. Barbour, S. B. Norton, H. R. Preston, and K. W. Thornton (eds), Ecological Assessment of Aquatic Resources: Linking Science to Decision-Making. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Fl.

Stevenson, R. J., R. C. Bailey, M. C. Harrass, C. P. Hawkins, J. Alba-Tercedor, C. Couch, S. Dyer, F. A. Fulk, J. M. Harrington, C. T. Hunsaker, R. K. Johnson. 2004. Interpreting results of ecological assessments. Pages 85-101 in M. T. Barbour, S. B. Norton, H. R. Preston, and K. W. Thornton (eds), Ecological Assessment of Aquatic Resources: Linking Science to Decision-Making. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Fl.

Stewart-Oaten, A., and J.R. Bence. 2001. Temporal and spatial variation in environmental impact assessment. Ecological Monographs 71:305-339.

Stoddard, J.L., P. Larsen, C.P. Hawkins, R.K. Johnson, and R.H. Norris. 2006. Setting expectations for the ecological conditions of running waters: the concept of reference conditions. Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276.

Simon, T.P. 2003. Biological response signature: indicator patterns using aquatic communities. CRC Press, New York.

United States EPA. 2003. Draft report on the environment 2003. EPA 260-R-02-006, US-EPA, Washington, DC.

Washington, G.H. 1984. Diversity, biotic and similarity indices: a review with special relevance to aquatic ecosystems. Water Research 18:653-694.

Wright, J.F., D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse., 2000. Assessing the biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria, England.

Yuan, L.L., and S.B Norton. 2003. Comparing responses of macroinvertebrate metrics to increasing stress. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22:308-322.

Armitage, P.D. 1989. The application of a classification and prediction technique based on macroinvertebrates to assess the effects of river regulation. Page 267-293 in J.A. Gore and G.E. Petts, editors. Alternatives in regulated river management. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Armitage, P.D., R.J.M. Gunn, M.T. Furse, J.F. Wright, and D. Moss. 1987. The use of prediction to assess macroinvertebrate response to river regulation. Hydrobiologia 144:25-32.

Bailey, R.C., R.H. Norris, and T.B. Reynoldson. 2004. Bioassessment of Freshwater Ecosystems using the Reference Condition Approach. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Carlisle, D.M. and C.P. Hawkins. 2008. Land use and the structure of western USA stream invertebrate assemblages: O/E and ecological traits. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:986-999.

Clarke, R.T., M.T. Furse, J.F. Wright, and D. Moss. 1996. Derivation of a biological quality index for river sites: comparison of the observed with the expected fauna. Journal of Applied Statistics 23:311-332.

Clarke, R.T., M.T. Furse, R.J.M. Gunn, J.M. Winder, and J.F. Wright. 2002. Sampling variation in macroinvertebrate data and implications for river quality indices. Freshwater Biology 47:1735-1751.

Clarke, R.T. and J.F. Murphy. 2006. Effects of locally rare taxa on the precision and sensitivity of RIVPACS bioassessment of freshwaters.

Clarke, R.T., J.F. Wright, and M.T. Furse. 2003. RIVPACS models for predicting the expected macroinvertebrate fauna and assessing the ecological quality of rivers. Ecological Modeling 160:219-233.

de Zwart, D., S. D. Dyer, L. Posthuma, and C. P. Hawkins. 2006. Use of predictive models to attribute potential effects of mixture toxicity and habitat alteration on the biological condition of fish assemblages. Ecological Applications 16:1295-1310.

Furse, M.T., D. Moss, J.F. Wright, and D.P. Armitage. 1984. The influence of seasonal and taxonomic factors on the ordination and classification of running water sites in Great Britain and on the prediction of their macroinvertebrate communities. Freshwater Biology 14:257-280.

Furse, M.T. 2000. The application of RIVPACS procedures in headwater streams – an extensive and important national resources Page 72-79 in J.F. Wright, D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse, editors. Assessing he biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. FBA, The Ferry House, Far Sawrey, Cumbria, England.

Hart, B.T., P.E. Davies, C. Humphrey, R.H. Norris, S. Sudaryanti, and Y. Trihadiningrum. 2001. Application of the Australian river bioassessment system (AUSRIVAS) in the Brantas River, East Java, Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management 62:93-100.

Trebuchet MS'; ">Hawkins, C. P. 2006. Quantifying biological integrity by taxonomic completeness: evaluation of a potential indicator for use in regional- and global-scale assessments. Ecological Applications 16:1251-1266.

Hawkins, C.P., R.H. Norris, J.N. Hogue, and J.W. Feminella. 2000. Development and evaluation of predictive models for measuring the biological integrity of streams. Ecological Applications 10:1456-1477.

Hawkins, C.P., and D.M. Carlisle. 2001. Use of predictive models for assessing the biological integrity of wetlands and other aquatic habitats. Pages 59-83 in R.B. Rader, D.P. Batzer, and S.A. Wissinger, editors. Bioassessment and management of North American Wetlands. John Wiley and Son, New York.

Hose, G., E. Turak, and N. Waddell. 2004. Reproducibility of AURIVAS rapid bioassessments using macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23:126-139.

Johnson, R.K. 2003. Development of a prediction system for lake stony-bottom littoral macroinvertebrate communities. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 158:517-540. Joy, M.K., and R.G. Death. 2002. Predictive modeling of freshwater fish as a biomonitoring toll in New Zealand. Freshwater Biology 47:2261-2275.

Joy, M.K., and R.G. Death. 2003. Biological assessment of rivers in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand using a predictive macroinvertebrate model. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37:367-379.

Knapp, R.A., C.P. Hawkins, J. Ladau and J.G. Mcclory. 2005. Fauna of Yosemite National Park lakes has low resistance but high resilience to fish introductions. Ecological Applications 15:835-847.

Marchant, R., A, Hirst, R.H. Norris, R. Butcher, L. Metzeling, and D. Tiller. Classification and prediction of macroinvertebrate communities from running waters in Victoria, Australia. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:664-681.

Marchant, R., A. Hirst, R.H. Norris, and L. Metzeling. 1999. Classification of macroinvertebrate communities across drainage basins in Victoria: consequences of sampling on a broad spatial scale for predictive modeling. Freshwater Biology 4:253-268.

Marchant, R., and G. Hehir. 2002. The use of AUSRIVAS predictive models to assess the response of lotic macroinvertebrates to dams in south-east Australia. Freshwater Biology 47:1033-1050.

Moss, D., M.T. Furse, J.F. Wright, and P.D. Armitage. 1987. The prediction of the macroinvertebrate fauna of unpolluted running-water sites in Great Britain using environmental data. Freshwater Biology 17:41-52.

Moss, D., J.F. Wright, M.T. Furse, and R.T. Clarke. 1999. A comparison of alternative techniques for the prediction of the fauna of running water sites in Great Britain. Freshwater Biology 41:167-181.

Ostermiller, J.D., and C.P. Hawkins. 2004. Effects of sampling error on bioassessments of stream ecosystems: application to RIVPACS-type models. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23:363-382.

Parson, M., and R.H. Norris. 1996. The effect of habitat-specific sampling on biological assessment of water quality using a predictive model. Freshwater Biology 36:419-434.

Reece, P., T.B. Reynoldson, J.S. Richardson, and D.M. Rosenberg. 2001. Implication of seasonal variation for biomonitoring with predictive models in the Fraser River catchment, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:1411-1418.

Reynoldson, T.B., R.C. Bailey, K.E. Day, and R.H. Norris. 1995. Biological guidelines for freshwater sediment based on Benthic Assessment of SedimenT (the BEAST) using a multivariate approach for predicting biological state. Australian Journal of Ecology 20:198-219.

Reynoldson, T.B., R.H. Norris, V.H. Resh, K.E. Day, and D.M. Rosenberg. 1997. The reference condition: a comparison of multimetric and multivariate approaches to assess water-quality impairment using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:833-852.

Reynoldson, T.B., D.M. Rosenberg, and V.H. Resh. 2001. Comparison of models predicting invertebrate assemblages for biomonitoring in the Fraser River catchment, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1395-1410.

Simpson, J.C., and R.H. Norris. 2000. Biological assessment of river quality: development of AusRivAS models and outputs. Page 125-142 in J.F. Wright, D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse, editors. Assessing the biological quality of fresh waters. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, UK.

Sloane, P.I.W., and R.H. Norris. 2003. Relationship of AUSRIVAS-based macroinvertebrate predictive model outputs to a metal pollution gradient. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22:457-471.

Smith, M.J., W.R. Kay, D.H.D Edward, P.J. Papas, K. ST-J Richardson, J.C. Simpson, A.M. pinder, D.J. Cale, P.H. Horwitz, J.A. Davies, F.H. Yung, R.H. Norris, and S.A. Halse. 1999. AusRivAS: using macroinvertebrates to assess ecological condition of rivers in Western Australia. Freshwater Biology 41:269-282.

Turak, E., L.K. Flack, R.H. Norris, J. Simpson, and N. Waddell. 1999. Assessment of river condition at a large spatial scale using predictive models. Freshwater Biology 41:283-298.

Van Sickle, J., C.P. Hawkins, D.P. Larsen, and A.H. Herlihy. 2005. A null model for the macroinvertebrate assemblage expected in unimpaired streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(1):178-191.

Wright, J.F., D.P. Armitage, M.T. Furse, and D. Moss. 1984 The classification of sites on British rivers using macroinvertebrates. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22:1939-1943.

Wright, J.F., D. Moss, P.D. Armitage, and M.T. Furse. 1984. A preliminary classification of running water sites in Great Britain based on macro-invertebrate species and prediction of community type using environmental data. Freshwater Biology 14:221-256.

Wright, J.F., P.D. Armitage, M.T. Furse, and D. Moss D. 1988. A new approach to the biological surveillance of river quality using macroinvertebrates. Verh. int. Verein. theor. angew. Limnol. 23:1548-1552.

Wright, J.F., P.D. Armitage, M.T. Furse, and D. Moss. 1989. Prediction of invertebrate communities using stream measurements. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 4:147-155.

Wright, J.F., M.T. Furse, P.D. Armitage, and D. Moss. 1993. New procedures for identifying running water sites subject to environmental stress and for evaluating sites for conservation, based on the macroinvertebrate fauna. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 127:319-326.

Wright, J.F. 1995. Development and use of a system for predicting the macroinvertebrate fauna in flowing waters. Australian Journal of Ecology 20:181-197.

Wright, J.F., J.H. Blackburn, R.J.M. Gunn, M.T. Furse, D.P Armitage, J.M. Winder, and K.L. Symes. 1996. Macroinvertebrate frequency data for the RIVPACS III sites in Great Britain and their use in conservation evaluation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6:141-167.

Wright, J.F. 2000. An introduction to RIVPACS. Page 1-24 in J.F. Wight, D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse, editors. Assessing the biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria, UK.

Wight, J.F., D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse. 2000. Assessing the biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria, UK.

Yuan, L.L., C.P. Hawkins, and J. Van Sickle. 2008. Effects of regionalization decisions on an O/E index for the national assessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:892-905.

Bailey, R.C., M.G. Kennedy, M.Z. Dervish, and R.M. Taylor. 1998. Biological assessment of freshwater ecosystems using a reference condition approach: comparing predicted and actual benthic invertebrates communities in Yukon streams. Freshwater Biology 39:765-774.

Bailey, R.C., R.H. Norris, and T.B. Reynoldson. 2004. Bioassessment of Freshwater Ecosystems using the Reference Condition Approach. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Chessman, B.C. 1999. Predicting the macroinvertebrate faunas of rivers by multiple regression of biological and environmental differences. Freshwater Biology 41: 747-757.

Grapentine, L., J. Anderson, D. Boyd, G.A. Burton, C. DeBarros, G. Johnson, C. Marvin, D. Milani, S. Painter, T. Pascoe, T. Reynoldson, L. Richman, K. Solomon, and P.M. Chapman. 2002. A decision making framework for sediment assessment developed for the Great Lakes. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 8:1641-1655.

Joy, M.K., and R.G. Death. 2000. Development and application of a predictive model of riverine fish community assemblages in the Taranaki region of the North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34:241-252.

Linke, S., R.M. Bailey, and J. Schwindt. 1999. Temporal variability of stream bioassessments using benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 42:575-584.

Linke, S., and R.H. Norris. 2005. A new prediction method for comparative bioassessment programs. Freshwater Biology 50:147-159.

Oberdorff, T., D. Pont, B. Hugueny, and D. Chessel. 2001. A probabilistic model characterizing fish assemblages of French rivers: a framework for environmental assessment. Freshwater Biology 46:399-415.

Reece, P., T.B. Reynoldson, J.S. Richardson, and D.M. Rosenberg. 2001. Implication of seasonal variation for biomonitoring with predictive models in the Fraser River catchment, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:1411-1418.

Reynoldson, T.B., R.C. Bailey, K.E. Day, and R.H. Norris. 1995. Biological guidelines for freshwater sediment based on Benthic Assessment of SedimenT (the BEAST) using a multivariate approach for predicting biological state. Australian Journal of Ecology 20:198-219.

Reynoldson, T.B., R.H. Norris, V.H. Resh, K.E. Day, and D.M. Rosenberg. 1997. The reference condition: a comparison of multimetric and multivariate approaches to assess water-quality impairment using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:833-852.

Reynoldson, T.B., D.M. Rosenberg, and V.H. Resh. 2001. Comparison of models predicting invertebrate assemblages for biomonitoring in the Fraser River catchment, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1395-1410.

Brosse, S., S. Lek, and C.R. Townsend. 2001. Abundance, diversity, and structure of freshwater invertebrates and fish communities: an artificial neural network approach. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35:135-145.

Hoang, H., F. Recknagel, J. Marshall, and S. Choy. 2001. Predictive modeling of macroinvertebrate assemblages for stream habitat assessments in Queensland (Australia). Ecological Modeling 146:195-206.

Joy, M.K., and R.G. Death. 2004. Predictive modeling and spatial mapping of freshwater fish and decapod assemblages using GIS and neural networks. Freshwater Biology 49:1036-1052.

Olden, J.D. 2003. A species-specific approach to modeling biological communities and its potential for conservation. Conservation Biology 17:854-863.

Spitz, F., and S. Lek. 1999. Environmental impact prediction using neural network modeling: an example in wildlife damage. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:317-326.

Bahls, L.L. 1993. Periphyton bioassessment methods for Montana streams. Water Quality Bureau, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena, Montana 59620.

Barbour, M.T., J.L. Plafkin, B.P. Bradley, C.G. Graves, AND R.W. Wisseman. 1992. Evaluation of EPA's rapid bioassessment benthic metrics: Metric redundancy and variability among reference stream sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11: 437-449.

Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, G.E. Griffith, R. Frydenborg, E. McCarron, J.S. White, M.L. Bastian. A framework for biological criteria for Florida streams using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:185-211.

Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder, and J.B. Stribling. 1999. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in wadeable streams and rivers: Periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. EPA 841-B-99-002. US-EPA, Washington, D.C.

Barbour, M.T., and C.O. Yoder. 2000. The multimetric approach to bioassessment, as used in the United State. Page 281-292 in J.F. Wight, D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse, editors. Assessing the biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria, UK.

Blocksom, K.A. 2003. A Performance Comparison of Metric Scoring Methods for a Multimetric Index for Mid-Atlantic Highlands Streams. Environmental Management 31:670-682.

Bryce, S.A., R.M. Hughes, and P.R. Kaufmann. 2002. Development of a bird integrity index: using bird assemblages as indicators of riparian condition. Environmental Management 30:294-310.

Davis, J.C., G.W. Minshall, C.T. Robinson, and P. Landres. 201. Monitoring wilderness stream ecosystems. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-70. Rocky Mountain Research Station, National Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture.

Emery, E.B., T.P. Simon, F.H. McCormick, P.L. Angermeier, J.E. Deshon, C.O. Yoder, R.E. Sanders, W.D. Pearson, G.D. Hickman, R.J. Reash, and J.A. Thomas. 2003. Development of a Multimetric Index for Assessing the Biological Condition of the Ohio River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132: 791-808.

Fore, L.S., and J.R. Karr. 1996. Assessing invertebrate responses to human activities: evaluating alternative approaches. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:212-231.

Ganasan, V., and R.M. Hughes. 1998. Application of an index of biological integrity (IBI) to fish assemblages of the rivers Khan and Kshipra (Madhya Pradesh), India. Freshwater Biology. 40:367-383.

Hill, B.H., A.T. Herlihy, P.R. Kaufmann, R.J. Stevenson, F.H. McCormick, and C.B. Johnson. 2000. Use of periphyton assemblage data as an index of biotic integrity. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:50-67.

Hill, B.H., A.T. Herlihy, P.R. Kaufmann, S.J. DeCelles, M.A. Vander Borgh. 2003. Assessment of streams of the eastern United States using a periphyton index of biotic integrity. Ecological Indicators 2:325-338.

Karr, J.R. 1981. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries 6: 21-27.

Karr, J.R. 1991. Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological Applications 1:66-84.

Karr, J.R., and E.W. Chu. 1999. Restoring life in running waters: better biological monitoring. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Karr, J.R., and E.W. Chu. 2000. Sustaining living rivers. Hydrobiologia 422/423:1-14.

Klemm, D.J., K.A. Blocksom, F.A. Fulk, A.T. Herlihy, R.M. Hughes, P.R. Kaufmann, D.V. Peck, J.L. Stodard, W.T. Thoeny, M.B. Griffith, and W. S. Davis. 2003. Development and evaluation of a macroinvertebrate Biotic Integrity Index (MIBI) for regional assessing Mid-Atlantic Highland streams. Environmental Management 31:656-669.

Maxted, J.R., M.T. Barbour, J. Gerritsen, V. Poretti, N. Primrose, A. Silvia, D. Penrose, and R. Renfrow. 2000. Assessment framework for mid-Atlantic coastal plain streams using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society McCormick, F.H., R.M. Hughes, P.R. Kaufmann, D.V. Peck, J.L. Stoddard, AND A.T. Herlihy. 2001. Development of an Index of Biotic Integrity for the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130:857-877.

Plafkin, J.L., M.T. Barbour, K.D. Porter, and R.M. Hughes. 1989. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and rivers: benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. EPA/440/4-89/001, US-EPA, Washington, DC.

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