Selected NAMC Peer-Reviewed Publications


  • Nelson, D. J. L. Courtwright, and C. P. Hawkins. 2024. Simplified random forest models predict reference-condition water chemistry as well as more complex models. Freshwater Science (in review).
  • Courtwright, J. L., and C. P. Hawkins. 2024. Assessing stream biological integrity across flow-permanence gradients. Freshwater Science 43(4).


  • Bayer J.M., R.A. Scully, E.K. Dlabola, K.A. Blocksom, J.L. Courtwright, C. Hirsch, D. Hockman-Wert, S.W. Miller, B.B. Roper, W.C. Saunders, and M.N. Snyder. 2023. More data, better documented: making data FAIR helps decision makers get more out of long-term aquatic monitoring programs. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 195:1141.
  • T. Siqueira, C. P. Hawkins, J. Olden, J. Tonkin, L. Comte, V. S. Saito, T. L. Anderson, G. P. Barbosa, N. Bonada, C. C. Bonecker, M. Cañedo-Argüelles, T. Datry, M. B. Flinn, P. Fortuño, G. A. Gerrish, P. Haase, M. J. Hill, J. M. Hood, K.-L. Huttunen, M. J. Jeffries, T. Muotka, D. R. O’Donnell, R. Paavola, P. Paril, M. J. Paterson, C. J. Patrick, G. PerbicheNeves, L. C. Rodrigues, S. C. Schneider, M. Straka, A. Ruhi. 2023. Ecological stability propagates across spatial scales and trophic levels in freshwater ecosystems. Ecology
  • Benkendorf, D. J., and C. P. Hawkins. 2023. Validating survey-inferred temperature– distribution relationships with long-term laboratory experiments. Freshwater Science (in revision)
  • Nelson, D., and S. W. Miller. 2023. Longitudinal patterns of diversity and production in a large regulated river. Hydrobiologia 850:1601-1617. 


  • Nelson, D., and T. W. Armstrong. 2022. Invasion of the New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam. Biological Invasions 24:775-785.
  • Benkendorf, D. J., S. D. Schwartz, D. R. Cutler, and C. P. Hawkins. 2022. Correcting for the effects of class imbalance improves the performance of machine-learning based species distribution models. Ecological Modelling 483:p110414.
  • Rose, K. C., B. Bierwagen, S. D. Bridgham, D. M. Carlisle, C. P. Hawkins, N. L. Poff, J. S. Read, J. Rohr, J. E. Saros, and C. E. Williamson. 2022. Indicators of the effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems. Climatic Change 176:23
  • Abdulwahab, U. A., E. Hammill, and C. P. Hawkins. 2022. Choice of climate data affects the performance and interpretation of species distribution models. Ecological Modelling 471:p.110042.
  • Hawkins, C. P. and D. M. Carlisle. 2022. Biological Assessments of Aquatic Ecosystems. Pages 525-536 in T. Mehner and K. Tockner (editors). Encyclopedia of Inland Waters (2nd Edition), Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • Kunz, S., B. J. Kefford, A. Schmidt-Kloiber, C. D Matthaei, P. Usseglio-Polatera, W. Graf, N. L. Poff, L. Metzeling, L. Twardochleb, C. P. Hawkins, and R. B. Schäfer. 2022. Tackling inconsistencies among freshwater invertebrate trait databases: harmonizing across continents and aggregating taxonomic resolution. Freshwater Biology 67:275-291.
  • Maasri, A., S. Jaehnig, M. Adamescu, R. Adrian, C. Baigun, D. Baird, A. Batista-Morales, N. Bonada, L. Brown, Q. Cai, J. Campos-Silva, V. Clausnitzer, T. Contreras-MacBeath, S. Cooke, T. Datry, G. Delacamara, K-D. Dijkstra, V. Tu Do, S. Domisch, D. Dudgeon, T. Eros, H. Freitag, J. Freyhof, J. Friedrich, M. Friedrichs-Manthey, J. Geist, M. Gessner, P. Goethals, M. Gollock, C. Gordon, H-P. Grossart, G. Gulemvuga, P. Gutierrez-Fonseca, P. Haase, D. Hering, H. J. Hahn, C. P. Hawkins, F. He, J. Heino, V. Hermoso, Z. Hogan, F. Hoelker, J. Jeschke, M. Jiang, R. Johnson, G. Kalinkat, B. Karimov, A. Kasangaki, I. Kimirei, B. Kohlmann, M. Kuemmerlen, J. Kuiper, B. Kupilas, S. Langhans, R. Lansdown, F. Leese, L. De Meester, F.s Magbanua, S. Matsuzaki, M. Monaghan, L. Mumladze, J. Muzon, P. M. Ndongo, J. Nejstgaard, O. Nikitina, C. Ochs, O. N. Odume, J. Opperman, H. Patricio, S. Pauls, R. Raghavan, A. Ramirez, B. Rashni, V. Ross-Gillespie, M.l Samways, R. Schaefer, A. Schmidt-Kloiber, O. Seehausen, D. N. Shah, S. Sharma, J. Soininen, N. Sommerwerk, J. Stockwell, F. Suhling, R. D. T. Shah, R. Tharme, J. Thorp, D. Tickner, K. Tockner, J. Tonkin, M. Valle, J. Vitule, M. Volk, D. Wang, C. Wolter, S. Worischka. 2022. A global agenda for advancing freshwater biodiversity research. Ecology Letters 25:255–263
  • McCord, S. E., J. L. Welty, J. Courtwright, C. Dillon, A. Traynor, S. H. Burnett, E. M. Courtright, G. Fults, J. W. Karl, J. W. Van Zee, N. P. Webb, and C. Tweedie. 2022. Ten practical questions to improve data quality. Rangelands 44:17–28.


  • Christopher, P. J., K. Anderson, B. Brown, C. P. Hawkins, A. Metcalf, P. Saffarinia, T. Siqueira, C. Swan, J. Tonkin, L. Yuan. 2021. The application of metacommunity theory to the management of riverine ecosystems. WIREs Water 2021:e1557.
  • Merritt, A. M., B. Lane, and C. P. Hawkins. 2021. Classification and prediction of natural streamflow regimes in arid regions of the USA. Water 13: 380.
  • Leonard, E. E., A. M. Mast, C. P. Hawkins, and K. M. Kettenring. 2021. Arthropod assemblages in invasive and native vegetation of Great Salt Lake wetlands. Wetlands 41:1-7.


  • Tyree, M. A., I. W. Bishop, C. P. Hawkins, R. Mitchell, S. A. Spaulding. 2020. Reduction of taxonomic bias in diatom species data. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 18: 271-279.
  • Benkendorf, D. J., and C. P. Hawkins. 2020. Effects of sample size and network depth on a deep learning approach to species distribution modeling. Ecological Informatics 60:101137.


  • Chen, K., J. R. Olson, J. J. Vander Laan, R. A. Hill, B. Wang, C. P. Hawkins. 2019. Improving the performance of ecological indices by balancing reference site quality and representativeness. Hydrobiologia 837:177-194.


  • Cao, Y. C., and C. P. Hawkins. 2018. Weighting effective number of species measures by abundance weakens detection of diversity responses. Journal of Applied Ecology 56:1200- 1209.
  • Le, T. D. H., M. Kattwinkel, K. Schützenmeister, J. R. Olson, C. P. Hawkins, R. B. Schäfer. 2018. Predicting current and future background ion concentrations in German surface water under climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 374:20180004.
  • Jourdan, J., M. Plath, J. D. Tonkin, M. Ceylan, A. C. Dumeier, G. Gellert, W. Graf, C. P. Hawkins, E. Kiel, A. W. Lorenz, C. D. Matthaei, P. F. M. Verdonschot, R. C. M. Verdonschot, and P. Haase. 2018. Reintroduction of freshwater macroinvertebrates: challenges and opportunities. Biological Reviews 94:368-387.
  • Hammill, E., C. P. Hawkins, H. S. Grieg, P. Kratina, J. B. Shurin, and T. B. Atwood. 2018. Strength of the relationships between β-diversity and ecosystem functions increases in environmentally heterogeneous landscapes. Ecology 99:2467-2475.
  • Mustonen, K.-R., H. Mykrä, H. Marttila, R. Sarremejane, N. Veijalainen, K. Sippel, T. Muotka, and C. P. Hawkins. 2018. Thermal and hydrologic responses to climate change predict marked alterations in boreal stream invertebrate assemblages. Global Change Biology 24:2434-2446.


  • Craig, L. S., J. D. Olden, A. H. Arthington, S. Entekin, C. P. Hawkins, J. J. Kelly, T. A. Kennedy, B. M. Maitland, E. J. Rosi, A. H. Roy, D. L. Strayer, J. L. Tank, A. O. West, M. S. Wooten. 2017. Meeting the challenge of interacting threats in freshwater ecosystems: A call to scientists and managers. Elementa: Science of the Athropocene 5:72.
  • Baxter, C. V., T. A. Kennedy, S. W. Miller, J. D. Muehlbauer, and L. A. Smock. 2017. Macroinvertebrate drift, adult Insect emergence and oviposition. Pages 435–456 Methods in Stream Ecology, Volume 1. Elsevier.
  • Olson, J. R., and C. P. Hawkins. 2017. Effects of total dissolved solids on growth and mortality predict distributions of stream macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 62:779-791
  • Nichols, S. J., L. A. Barmuta, B. C. Chessman, P. E. Davies, F. J. Dyer, E. T. Harrison, C. P. Hawkins, I. Jones, B. J. Kefford, S. Linke, R. Marchant, L. Metzeling, K. Moon, R. Ogden, M. Peat, T. B. Reynoldson, R. M. Thompson. 2017. The imperative need for nationally coordinated aquatic bioassessment of rivers and streams. Marine and Freshwater Research 68:599-613.


  • Dhungel, S., D. G. Tarboton, J. Jin, and C. P. Hawkins. 2016. Potential effects of climate change on ecologically-relevant aspects of streamflow regimes. River Research and Applications 32:1827-1840.
  • Hawkins, C. P. and L. L. Yuan. 2016. Multitaxon distribution models reveal severe alteration in the regional biodiversity of freshwater invertebrates. Freshwater Science 35:1365-1376.
  • Jones, R., C. P. Hawkins, M. S. Fennessy, and J. J. Vander Laan. 2016. Modeling wetland plant metrics to improve the performance of vegetation-based indices of biological integrity. Ecological Indicators 71:533-543.
  • Kennedy, T. a., J. D. Muehlbauer, C. B. Yackulic, D. a. Lytle, S. W. Miller, K. L. Dibble, E. W. Kortenhoeven, A. N. Metcalfe, and C. V. Baxter. 2016. Flow Management for Hydropower Extirpates Aquatic Insects, Undermining River Food Webs. BioScience XX:biw059.
  • Mazor, R. D., A. C. Rehn, P. R. Ode, M. Engeln, K. C. Schiff, E. D. Stein, D. Gillett, D. Herbst, and C.P. Hawkins. 2016. Bioassessment in complex environments: Designing an index for consistent meaning in different settings. Freshwater Science 35:249-271.
  • Ode, P. R., A. C. Rehn, R. D. Mazor, K. C. Schiff, E. D. Stein, J. T. May, L. R. Brown, D. B. Herbst, D. Gillett, K. Lunde, and C. P. Hawkins. 2016. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for the ecological assessment of streams in environmentally complex regions. Freshwater Science 35:237-248.
  • Cañedo-Argüelles, M., C.P. Hawkins, B. J. Kefford, J. R. Olson, R. B. Schäfer, B. Dyack, S. Brucet, D. Buchwalter, J. Dunlop, O. Frör, J. Lazorchak, E. Coring, H. R. Fernandez, W. Goodfellow, A. L. González Achem, S. Hatfield-Dodds, B. Karimov, P. Mensah, C. Piscart, N. Prat, S. Ponsá, C-J. Schulz, and A. J. Timpano. 2016. Saving freshwater from salts: Ion-specific standards are needed to protect biodiversity. Science 351:914-916.


  • Hawkins, C. P. 2015. The Clean Water Rule: Defining the scope of the Clean Water Act. Freshwater Science 34: 1585-1587.
  • Hawkins, C. P., H. Mykrä, J. Oksanen, and J. J. Vander Laan. 2015. Environmental disturbance can increase beta diversity of stream macroinvertebrate assemblages. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 483–494
  • Irvine, K. M., S. W. Miller, R. K. Al-Chokhachy, E. K. Archer, B. B. Roper, and J. L. Kershner. 2015. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling. Ecological Indicators 50:8–23.
  • Leigh, C., A. J. Boulton, J. L. Courtwright, K. Fritz, C. L. May, R. H. Walker, and T. Datry. 2015. Ecological research and management of intermittent rivers: An historical review and future directions. Freshwater Biology.


  • Hegeman, E. E., S. W. Miller, and K. E. Mock. 2014. Modeling freshwater mussel distribution in relation to biotic and abiotic habitat variables at multiple spatial scales. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71:1483–1497.
  • Hill, R. A., and C. P. Hawkins. 2014. Using modeled stream temperatures to predict macrospatial patterns of stream invertebrate biodiversity. Freshwater Biology 59:2632-2644.
  • Menuz, D. R., K. M. Kettenring, C. P. Hawkins, and D. R. Cutler. 2014. Non-equilibrium in plant distribution models – only an issue for introduced or dispersal limited species? Ecography 38:231-240.
  • Miller, S. W., and S. Judson. 2014. Responses of macroinvertebrate drift, benthic assemblages, and trout foraging to hydropeaking. 687:675–687.
  • Hill, R. A., C. P. Hawkins, and J Jiming. 2014. Predicting thermal vulnerability of stream and river ecosystems to climate change. Climatic Change 125:399-412.
  • Vander Laan, J. J., and C. P. Hawkins. 2014. Enhancing the performance and interpretation of freshwater biological indices: an application in arid zone streams. Ecological Indicators 36:470-482. 


  • Olson, J. R., and C. P. Hawkins. 2013. Developing site-specific nutrient criteria from empirical models. Freshwater Science 32:719-740.
  • Vander Laan, J. J., C. P. Hawkins, J. R. Olson, and R. A. Hill. 2013. Linking land use, instream stressors, and biological condition of streams to infer causes of regional ecological impairment in streams. Freshwater Science 32:801-820.
  • Hill, R. A., C. P. Hawkins, and D. M. Carlisle. 2013. Predicting thermal reference conditions in USA streams. Freshwater Science 32:39-55. 


  • Olson, J. R., and C. P. Hawkins. 2012. Predicting natural base-flow stream water chemistry in the western United States. Water Resources Research 48:W02504.
  • Stribling, J., B. Sweeney, J. Morse, G. Corkum, G. Lester, S.W. Miller, R. Mitchell, B. Poulton, S. Strachan and M. Wetzel. 2012. Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method: a rebuttal of Rogers (2012). Zootaxa 3359:65-68
  • Miller, S.W., D. Wooster, and J Li. 2012. Developmental, growth and population biomass responses of a river dwelling caddisfly (Brachycentrus occidentalis) to irrigation water withdrawals. Hydrobiologia 679:187-203
  • Wooster, D. E., S. W. Miller, and S. J. DeBano. 2012. An examination of the impact of multiple disturbances on a river system: taxonomic metrics versus biological traits. River Research and Applications 28:1630–1643.


  • Al-Chokhachy, R., B. B. Roper, E. K. Archer, and S. Miller. 2011. Quantifying the Extent of and Factors Associated with the Temporal Variability of Physical Stream Habitat in Headwater Streams in the Interior Columbia River Basin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:399–414.
  • Cao, Y., and C.P. Hawkins. 2011. The comparability of bioassessments: A review of conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 30:680-701. 


  • Chinnayakanahalli, K. J., C.P. Hawkins, D. G. Tarboton, and R. A. Hill. 2010. Natural flow regime, temperature and the composition and richness of invertebrate assemblages in streams of the western United States. Freshwater Biology 56:1248-1265.
  • Pfrender, M. E., C. P. Hawkins, M. Bagley, G. Courtney, B. R. Creutzburg, J. H. Epler, S. Fend, L. C. Ferrington, P. L. Hartzell, S. Jackson, D. P. Larsen, C. A. Levesque, J. C. Morse, M. Petersen, D. Ruiter, D. Schindel, M. Whiting. 2010. Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: advances and challenges in DNA-based approaches. Quarterly Review of Biology 85:319-340.
  • Hawkins, C. P., Y. Cao, and B. Roper. 2010. Method of predicting reference condition biota affects the performance and interpretation of ecological indices. Freshwater Biology. 55:1066-1085.
  • Hawkins, C. P., J. R. Olson, and R. A. Hill. 2010. The reference condition: predicting benchmarks for ecological and water-quality assessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29:312-358.
  • Miller, S. W., P. Budy, and J. C. Schmidt. 2010. Quantifying Macroinvertebrate Responses to In-Stream Habitat Restoration: Applications of Meta-Analysis to River Restoration. Restoration Ecology 18:8–19.


  • Hawkins, C. P., S. G. Paulsen, J. Van Sickle, and L. L. Yuan. 2008. Regional assessments of stream ecological condition: scientific challenges associated with the USA’s national Wadeable Stream Assessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:807- 808.
  • Paulsen, S. G., A. Mayio, D. Peck, J. Stoddard, E. Tarquinio, S. Holdsworth, J. Van Sickle, L. L. Yuan, C. P. Hawkins, A. T. Herlihy, P. R. Kaufmann, M. T. Barbour, D. P. Larsen, and A. R. Olsen. 2008. Condition of stream ecosystems in the United States: an overview of the first national assessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:812-821.
  • Herlihy, A. T., S. Paulsen, J. Van Sickle, J. Stoddard, C. P. Hawkins, and L. L. Yuan. 2008. Striving for consistency in a national assessment: the challenges of applying a reference condition approach at a continental scale. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:860-877.
  • Yuan, L. L., C. P. Hawkins, and J. Van Sickle. 2008. Effects of regionalization decisions on an O/E index for the national assessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:892-905.
  • Carlisle, D. M., and C. P. Hawkins. 2008. Land use and the structure of western USA stream invertebrate assemblages: O/E and ecological traits. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:986-999.
  • Ode, P. R., C. P. Hawkins, and R. D. Mazor. 2008. Comparability of biological assessments derived from predictive models and multimetric indices of increasing geographic scope. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:967-985.
  • Paulsen, S. G., C. P. Hawkins, J. Van Sickle, and L. L. Yuan. 2008. An invitation to apply national survey data to ecological research. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:1017-1018.
  • Carlisle, D. M., C. P. Hawkins, M. R. Meador, M. Potapova, and J. Falcone. 2008. Biological assessments of Appalachian streams derived from predictive models for fish, macroinvertebrate, and diatom assemblages. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:16-37. 


  • Cao, Y., C. P. Hawkins, D. Larsen, and J. Van Sickle. 2007. Standardizing sampling effort on autosimilarity for comparing assemblages: effect of species-occurrence and species-abundance distributions. American Naturalist 170:381-395.
  • Cao, Y., C. P. Hawkins, J. R. Olson, and M. A. Kosterman. 2007. Modeling natural environmental gradients improves the accuracy and precision of diatom-based indicators for Idaho streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26:566-585.
  • Hargett, E. G., J. R. Zumberge, C. P. Hawkins, and J. R. Olson. 2007. Development of a RIVPACS-type predictive model for bioassessment of wadeable streams in Wyoming. Ecological Indicators 7:807-826.
  • Van Sickle, J., D. P. Larsen, and C. P. Hawkins. 2007. Exclusion of rare taxa affects the performance of the O/E index in bioassessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26:319-331.
  • Rehn, A. C., P. R. Ode, and C. P. Hawkins. 2007. Comparisons of targeted riffle and reach-wide macroinvertebrate samples: implications for data sharing in regional stream condition assessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26:332-348. 


  • Hawkins, C. P. 2006. Maintaining and restoring the ecological Integrity of freshwater ecosystems: improving management by refining biological assessments. Ecological Applications 16:1249-1250.
  • Hawkins, C. P. 2006. Quantifying biological integrity by taxonomic completeness: evaluation of a potential indicator for use in regional- and global-scale assessments. Ecological Applications 16:1251-1266.
  • Stoddard, J. L., P. Larsen, C. P. Hawkins, R. K. Johnson, and R. H. Norris. 2006. Setting expectations for the ecological condition of running waters: the concept of reference condition. Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276.
  • de Zwart, D., S. D. Dyer, L. Posthuma, and C. P. Hawkins. 2006. Use of predictive models to attribute potential effects of mixture toxicity and habitat alteration on the biological condition of fish assemblages. Ecological Applications 16:1295-1310.
  • Van Sickle, J., D. D. Huff, and C. P. Hawkins. 2006. Selecting discriminant function models for predicting the expected richness of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 51: 359-372


  • Cao, Y., and C. P. Hawkins. 2005. Simulating biological impairment to evaluate the accuracy of ecological indicators. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 954-965.
  • Knapp, R. A., C. P. Hawkins, J. Ladau, and J. A. Garton. 2005. Fauna of Yosemite National Park lakes has low resistance but high resilience to fish introductions. Ecological Applications 15:835-847.
  • Cao, Y., C. P. Hawkins, and A, D. Storey. 2005. A method for measuring the comparability of different sampling methods used in biological surveys: implications for data integration and synthesis. Freshwater Biology 50: 1105-1115.
  • Van Sickle, J., C. P. Hawkins, D. P. Larsen, A. T. Herlihy. 2005. A null model for the expected macroinvertebrate assemblage in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24:178–191. 


  • Ostermiller, J. D. and C. P. Hawkins. 2004. Effects of sampling error on bioassessments of stream ecosystems: application to RIVPACS-type models. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23:363-382. 


  • Vinson, M. R. and C. P. Hawkins 2003. Broad-scale geographic patterns in local stream insect genera richness. Ecography 26:751-767.
  • Cao, Y., C. P. Hawkins, and M. R. Vinson. 2003. Measuring and controlling data quality in biological assemblage surveys with special reference to stream benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 48:1898-1911. 


  • Hawkins, C.P. and D.M. Carlisle. 2001. Use of predictive models for assessing the biological integrity of wetlands and other aquatic habitats. Pages 59-83 in Bioassessment and management of North American Wetlands. R.B. Rader, D.P. Batzer, and S.A. Wissinger (eds). John Wiley and Son‚ New York.
  • Vinson, M.R. 2001. A history of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage changes downstream from a large dam. Ecological Applications 11:711-730


  • Norris, R. H. and C. P. Hawkins. 2000. Monitoring river health. Hydrobiologia 435:5-17.
  • Hawkins, C. P., R. H. Norris, J. N. Hogue, and J. W. Feminella. 2000. Development and evaluation of predictive models for measuring the biological integrity of streams. Ecological Applications 10:1456-1477.
  • Hawkins, C. P. and R. H. Norris. 2000. Performance of different landscape classifications for aquatic bioassessments: introduction to the series. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:367-369.
  • Hawkins, C. P., R. H. Norris, J. Gerritsen, R. M. Hughes, S. K. Jackson, R. H. Johnson, and R. J. Stevenson. 2000. Evaluation of landscape classifications for biological assessment of freshwater ecosystems: synthesis and recommendations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:541-556.
  • Hawkins, C. P. and M. R. Vinson. 2000. Weak correspondence between landscape classifications and stream invertebrate assemblages: implications for bioassessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:501-517.


  • Vinson, M. L. and C. P. Hawkins. 1998. Biodiversity of stream insects: variation at local, basin, and regional spatial scales. Annual Review of Entomology 43:271-293.
  • O’Neill, M. P., J. C. Schmidt, J. P. Dobrowolski, C. P. Hawkins, and C. M. U. Neale. 1997. Identifying sites for riparian wetland restoration: a conceptual framework and its application to reaches within the upper Arkansas River basin. Restoration Ecology 5:85-102.
  • Hawkins, C. P., J. N. Hogue, L. A. Decker, and J. W. Feminella. 1997. Channel morphology, water temperature, and assemblage structure of stream insects. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:728-749.
  • Russell, G., C. P. Hawkins, and M. P. O’Neill. 1997. The role of GIS in selecting sites for riparian restoration based on hydrology and land use. Restoration Ecology 5:56-68.
  • Goodwin, C. N., C. P. Hawkins, and J. L. Kershner. 1997. Riparian restoration in the western United States: Overview and perspective. Restoration Ecology 5:4-14.
  • Hawkins, C. P., K. Bartz, and C. M. U. Neale. 1997. Vulnerability of riparian vegetation to catastrophic flooding: implications for riparian restoration. Restoration Ecology 5:75-84.
  • Vinson, M. R., and C. P. Hawkins. 1996. Effects of sampling area and subsampling procedure on comparisons of taxa richness among streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:392-399.
  • Angradi, T.R. and M.R. Vinson. 1995. Aquatic monitoring on national forests and Bureau of Land Management Districts. Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society 12:389-398.
  • Hawkins, C. P., J. L. Kershner, P. Bisson, M. Bryant, L. Decker, S. V. Gregory, D. A. McCullough, K. Overton, G. Reeves, R. Steedman, and M. Young. 1993. A hierarchical approach to classifying stream habitat features. Fisheries 18:3-12.