Skip to main content


Angradi, T.R. and M.R. Vinson. 1995. Aquatic monitoring on national forests and Bureau of Land Management Districts. Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society 12:389-398.

Cao, Y. and C.P. Hawkins. 2005. Simulating biological impairment to evaluate the accuracy of ecological indicators. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:954-965.

Cao, Y., C.P. Hawkins and A.W. Storey. 2005. A method for measuring the comparability of different sampling methods used in biological surveys: implications for data integration and synthesis. Freshwater Biology 50:1105-1115.

Cao, Y., D.P. Larsen and D.W. White. 2004. Estimating regional species richness using a limited number of survey units. Ecoscience 11(1):23-35.

Cao, Y., C.P. Hawkins, and M.R. Vinson. 2003. Measuring and controlling data quality in biological assemblage surveys with special reference to stream benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 48:1898-1911.

Cao, Y., D.D. Williams, and D.P. Larsen. 2002. Comparison of biological communities: the problem of sample representativeness. Ecological Monographs 72:41-56.

Cao, Y., D.P. Larsen, R.M. Hughes, P. Angermeier, and T. Patton. 2002. Sampling efforts affect multivariate comparisons of stream assemblages. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21:707-714.

Cao, Y., D.P. Larsen, and R. St-J. Thorne. 2001. Rare species in multivariate analysis for bioassessment: some considerations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20:144-153.

Cao, Y., D.P. Larsen and R. M. Hughes. 2001. Evaluating sampling sufficiency in fish assemblage surveys: a similarity-based approach. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58:1782-1793

Cao, Y. and D.D. Williams. 1999. Rare species are important in bioassessment (Reply to the comment by Marchant). Limnology and Oceanography 44:1841-1842.

Cao, Y., D.D. Williams and N.E. Williams. 1999. Data transformation and standardization in the multivariate analysis of river water quality. Ecological Applications 9(2):669-677.

Cao, Y., D.D. Williams, and N.E. Williams. 1998. How important are rare species in community ecology and bioassessment. Limnology and Oceanography 43:1043-1049.

Cao, Y., A.W. Bark and W.P. Williams. 1997. A comparison of clustering methods for river benthic community abalysis. Hydrobiologia 347:25-40.

Cao, Y., W.P. Williams and A.W. Bark. 1997. Effects of sample size (replicate number) on similarity measures in river benthic Aufwuchs community analysis. Water Environment Research 69:107-114.

Cao, Y., W.P. Williams, A.W. Bark. 1997. Similarity measures bias in river benthic Aufwuchs community analysis. Water Environment Research 69:95-106.

Cao, Y., A.W. Bark and W.P. Williams. 1997. Analyzing benthic macroinvertebrate community changes along a pollution gradient: a framework for the development of biotic indices. Water Research 31:884-892.

Cao, Y., A.W. Bark and W.P. Williams. 1996. Measuring the responses of macroinvertebrate communities to water pollution: a comparison of multivariate approaches, biotic and diversity indices. Hydrobiologia 341:1-19.

Carlisle, D.M. and C.P. Hawkins. 1998. Effects of introduced trout and habitat structure on benthic and pelagic invertebrates in mountain lakes. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 17:286-300.

Crisafulli, C.M. and Hawkins, C.P.. 1997. Ecosystem recovery following a catastrophic disturbance: lessons learned from Mount St. Helens, in Mack, M., P. Opler, C. Haecker, P. Doran and L. Huckably (editors.). Status and trends of the nation's biological resources. USDI‚ Washington D.C.

De Zwart, D., S. D. Dyer, L. Posthuma, and C. P. Hawkins.. 2006. Predictive models attribute effects on fish assemblages to toxicity and habitat alteration. Ecological Applications 16:1295-1310.

Goodwin, C. N., C. P. Hawkins, and J. L. Kershner.. 1997. Riparian restoration in the western United States: Overview and perspective. Restoration Ecology 5:4-14.

Hawkins, C. P. 2006. Maintaining and restoring the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems: refining biological assessments. Ecological Society of America 16:1249-1250.

Hawkins, C. P. 2006. Quantifying biological integrity by taxonomic completeness: its utility in regional and global assessments. Ecological Applications 16:1277-1294.

Hawkins, C.P., J. Ostermiller, M. Vinson, R.J. Stevenson, and J. Olsen. 2003. Stream algae, invertebrate, and environmental sampling associated with biological water quality assessments: filed protocols. Department of Aquatic, Watershed, and Earth Resources, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5210, USA.

Hawkins, C.P. and D.M. Carlisle. 2001. Use of predictive models for assessing the biological integrity of wetlands and other aquatic habitats. Pages 59-83 in Bioassessment and management of North American Wetlands. R.B. Rader, D.P. Batzer, and S.A. Wissinger (eds). John Wiley and Son‚ New York.

Hawkins, C.P., R.H. Norris, J. Gerritsen, R.M. Hughes, S.K. Jackson, R.K. Johnson, R.J. Stevenson. 2000. Evaluation of the use of landscape classifications for the prediction of freshwater biota synthesis and recommendations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:541-556.

Hawkins, C.P., R.H. Norris, J.N. Hogue, and J.W. Feminella. 2000. Development and evaluation of predictive models for measuring the biological integrity of streams. Ecological Applications 10:1456-1477.

Hawkins, C.P. and R.H. Norris. 2000. Effects of taxonomic resolution and use of subsets of the fauna on the performance of RIVPACS-type models. Pages 217-228 in J.F. Wight, D.W. Sutcliffe, and M.T. Furse, editors. Assessing the biological quality of fresh waters: RIVPACS and other techniques. Freshwater Biological Association‚ Ambleside, Cumbria, UK.

Hawkins, C.P. and R.H. Norris (editors). 2000. Landscape classifications: aquatic biota and bioassessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19 (3).

Hawkins, C.P. and R.H. Norris. 2000. Performance of different landscape classifications for aquatic bioassessments: introduction to the series. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:367-369.

Hawkins, C.P., R.H. Norris, J. Gerritsen, R.M. Hughes, S.K. Jackson, R.H. Johnson and R.J. Stevenson. 2000. Evaluation of landscape classifications for biological assessment of freshwater ecosystems: synthesis and recommendations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:541-556.

Hawkins, C.P. and M.R. Vinson. 2000. Weak correspondence between landscape classifications and stream invertebrate assemblages: implications for bioassessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:501-517.

Hawkins, C.P.. 1998. Effects of watershed vegetation and disturbance on invertebrate community structure in western Cascade streams: implications for stream ecosystem theory. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol 23:1167-1173.

Hawkins, C.P., J.N. Hogue, L.A. Decker and J.W. Feminella. 1997. Landscape variability, thermal heterogeneity, and variation in assemblage structure of stream insects. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:728-749.

Hawkins, C.P., K. Bartz and C.M U. Neale. 1997. Vulnerability of riparian vegetation to catastrophic flooding: implications for riparian restoration. Restoration Ecology 5:75-84.

Hawkins, C.P.. 1994. What are riparian ecosystems and why are we worried about them?. Natural Resources and Environmental Issues 1:1-10.

Hawkins, C.P., J.L. Kershner, P. Bisson, M. Bryant, L. Decker, S.V. Gregory, D.A. McCullough, K. Overton, G. Reeves, R. Steedman and M. Young. 1993. A hierarchical approach to classifying stream habitat features. Fisheries 18:3-12.

Hawkins, C.P. and J.A. MacMahon. 1989. Guilds: the multiple meanings of a concept. Annual Review of Entomology 34:423-451.

Knapp, R.A., C.P. Hawkins, J. Ladau and J.G. Mcclory. 2005. Fauna of Yosemite National Park lakes has low resistance but high resilience to fish introductions. Ecological Applications 15(3):835-847.

Norris, R.H. and C.P. Hawkins. 2000. Monitoring river health. Hydrobiologia 435:5-17.

O'Neill, M.P., J.C. Schmidt, J.P. Dobrowolski, C.P. Hawkins and C.M.U. Neale. 1997. Identifying sites for riparian wetland restoration: a conceptual framework and its application to reaches within the upper Arkansas River basin. Restoration Ecology 5:85-102.

Ostermiller, J.D. and C.P. Hawkins. 2004. Effects of sampling error on bioassessments of stream ecosystems: application to RIVPACS-type models. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23(2):363–382.

Russell, G.D., C.P. Hawkins, and M.P. O'Neill. 1997. The role of GIS in selecting sites for riparian restoration based on hydrology and land use. Restoration Ecology 5:56-68.

Stevenson, R.J., R.C. Bailey, M.C. Harrass, C.P. Hawkins, J. Alba-Tercedor, C. Couch, S. Dyer, F. A. Fulk, J. M. Harrington, C.T. Hunsaker, R.K. Johnson. 2004. Designing data collection for ecological assessments. Pages 55-84 in M. T. Barbour, S. B. Norton, H. R. Preston, and K. W. Thornton (eds), Ecological Assessment of Aquatic Resources: Linking Science to Decision-Making. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Pensacola, Fl.

Stoddard, J. L., D. V. Peck, A. R. Olsen, D. P. Larsen, J. Van Sickle, C. P. Hawkins, R. M. Hughes, T. R. Whittier, G. Lomnicky, A. T. Herlihy, P. R. Kaufmann, S. A. Peterson, P. L. Ringold, S. G. Paulsen, and R. Blair.. 2005. Environmental monitoring and assessment program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Van Sickle, J., D. D. Huff, and C. P. Hawkins. 2006. Selecting discriminant function models for predicting the expected richness of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 51:359-372.

Van Sickle, J., C. P. Hawkins, D. P. Larsen, and A. T. Herlihy.. 2005. A null model for the expected macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams. Journal North American Benthological Society 24:178-191.

Vinson, M.R. and C.P. Hawkins. 2003. Broad-scale geographical patterns in stream insect genera richness. Ecography 26:751-767.

Vinson, M.R.. 2001. A history of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage changes downstream from a large dam. Ecological Applications 11:711-730.

Vinson, M.R. and C.P. Hawkins. 1998. Biodiversity of stream insects: variation at local, basin, and regional spatial scales. Annual Review of Entomology 43:271-293.

Vinson, M.R. and C.P. Hawkins. 1996. Effects of sampling area and subsampling procedure on comparisons of taxa richness among stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:392-399.